Based on:

(Wave-Particle Dualism) the dual nature of the electron

Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle

Finding the mathematical expression that describes:

Wave motion of electron

Shape and energy of that wave motion

**The dual nature of the electron**: experimental data showed that the electron has a dual nature which means that it has:

A wave propertyThis means that: {Every moving body such as electron – nucleus – molecules is associates with a wave motion or matter waves known as (MATTER WAVES) which have properties differ from electromagnetic waves}

A particle property

The matter wave motion differs from the electromagnetic waves in

**Matter waves**:

They are not separating from moving body

Their speed is not = speed of light

**Electromagnetic waves**:

They are separating from moving body

Their speed is = speed of light

**Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle**: Bohr's atomic model postulated that it is possible to determine both the position (location) and the velocity of the electron at the same time

BUT

By applying the principles of quantum mechanics Heisenberg concludes that:

{It is impossible to determine both the position and velocity of the electron exactly at the same time}.We can only say it is probably to a greater or loser extant to locate the electron in this or that place Because if we image that the electron moves with certain velocity in certain direction, we must use photon to measure its position, and then this photon will change the velocity of the electron

**SchrÃ¶dinger mathematical expression:**He uses the ideas of Blank, Einstein, De Broglie and Heisenberg to show that:

It is possible to determine the allowed energy level (orbital) of the electron

It is possible to define the region of space around the nucleus where it is most probable to find the electron in each orbital

The motion of electron around the nucleus has wave properties, therefore it is prefer to use the term of electron cloud to describe orbital

**Electron cloud:**It is the region of space around the molecules where it is probable to find the electron in it

Difference between orbit and orbital:

Orbit

Used in Bohr's theoryOrbital

Circular planer with particular radii

It has a constant value It has not a constant value

Used in SchrÃ¶dinger's wave mechanics theory

Its radius is not constant

It has not a constant value

## 1 comments:

Nice post. I enjoy reading your article. I found new ideas and very good information. I will come back for the next post. Thank you.

Taylor

www.imarksweb.org

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